Dentistry, X-rays and Morecambe and Wise
Graham Davis is Professor of 3D X-ray Imaging at Queen Mary’s Institute of Dentistry. In this blog post, he describes his team’s work in helping the BBC to restore a lost episode of the Morecambe and Wise Show from a disintegrated film reel, as featured in the latest episode of BBC Click.
20 February 2018
For those who haven’t heard or read the story, it’s probably a little difficult to see the connection between dental research, X-ray science, and the Morecambe and Wise show.
Since the early 90s, I have been working on the design and application of X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanners, which are essentially microscopic forms of medical CT scanners.
XMT differs from its full-size medical counterpart in that it is only used to scan small inanimate specimens (from millimetres to a few centimetres), it takes longer, and whereas with medical CT the X-ray system rotates about the patient, with XMT it is the specimen that rotates.
In dentistry, we use XMT in research, where we can scan extracted human teeth and precisely map the mineral concentration in three dimensions. This enables us to study the way that teeth lose mineral under acid attack, and where possible, test experimental methods of reversing the process.
Although most of the focus of our facility is on tooth and bone samples, we are often approached by researchers in quite diverse fields with enquiries about the feasibility of scanning some other type of specimen.
We recently collaborated with Cardiff University to successfully scan and digitally ‘unroll’ a damaged 15thCentury scroll from the Norfolk records office, using our scanners to detect the iron-based ink on the parchment.
My colleague, David Mills, and I had, on occasion, discussed the possibility of detecting and imaging the silver content of black and white films, but it was not until TV archiving expert Charles Norton came to us with another of those bizarre requests that we actually put this to the test.
When film reel turns to ‘black goo’
Charles relayed to me a problem with acetate film, commonly called ‘vinegar syndrome’, whereby the acetate base of the film breaks down to form acetic acid and the image, at least for a while, turns to the consistency of marmite. Any attempt to unreel the film, or any movement that causes the layers to move with respect to each other, smears the image beyond recovery.
In time, the whole film turns to a black goo. Furthermore, the process is self-catalysing, so once it has started the end is inevitable. Not only that, but acetic acid fumes released can ‘infect’ other films stored nearby, thus affected films are usually disposed of quickly.
Charles then told me how a 16mm film copy of the second episode of the Morecambe and Wise show had turned up in an archive in Nigeria. In hot, humid conditions it was suffering from advanced vinegar syndrome and fit only for the skip. But this was the only remaining copy since the episodes were originally stored on video tape, long since erased, and such film copies were only made for overseas use. Charles had heard of our work with scrolls and asked if anything could be done.
Chopping up the film with lasers
Not wishing to turn down a challenge, we set to work. Early experiments with very short rolls of film (only a few centimetres in diameter) yielded surprising and spectacular results. But there was a fundamental snag; to go from these tiny sample rolls to something 30-40 cm in diameter would require a phenomenal increase in X-ray exposure (probably enough to incinerate the film) and an X-ray detector with inconceivably high resolution and dynamic range.
Even to get close to having something like this would take millions in funding and years to develop, by which time the film would be soup. Even then, we could never come close to having something that would scan the whole film; the laws of physics just would not allow it.
So after back-of-the-envelope feasibility calculations I broke the bad news to Charles and told him that there was no way it could be done, unless we chopped the reel into small pieces and scanned each piece individually. To my surprise, Charles immediately agreed to this proposal (even though I had not been terribly serious) since the alternative was to dump the film or watch it decay into a black sticky mess.
We used a laser cutter to avoid mechanical disturbance and piece by piece scanned the first eight minutes worth of film. We then cut more blocks towards the centre of the reel to give us snapshots of the remaining footage.
‘My first glimpses of Eric and Ernie’
Over 5,000 X-ray images were taken as 45 blocks were each rotated around 360 degrees, taking around 18 hours per block to obtain the required image quality.
Each block gave us a 3D data set, which we could virtually slice through to see layers of film (like cutting through a swiss roll lengthways). With a few days programming, I was able to start manually flattening out the images to get my first glimpses of Eric and Ernie in action.
I even managed to semi-automate the process, before conceding that this was simply taking too much time away from my primary research. So when Adam Wiewiorka from BBC R&D came up with an idea for fully automating the process, I handed over the reins and let him work his magic.
The images recovered were distorted and damaged, mostly by the vinegar syndrome, but a few by the laser-cutting. Nevertheless, we had jointly succeeded in bringing these images back from the dead, which gave us all something to smile about.
- Watch Professor Graham Davis interviewed about the project on BBC Click.
- Graham will be giving his inaugural lecture on Tuesday 27 March (6:30pm) at the Skeel lecture theatre, People’s Palace (Mile End, London, E1 4NS).
- Read more about how Graham and his team scanned the film on the BBC Research & Development blog.
Oral Cancer Poster Designed by Dental Student Jed Lee Distributed to GPs in Tower Hamlets
An oral cancer poster produced by Year 5 dental student, Jed Lee, was recently showcased and distributed at a Tower Hamlets GP Protected Learning Time programme on cancer held in January 2018. The GP Clinical Lead from the Tower Hamlets Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) was extremely impressed with the poster and extended an invitation for it to be distributed to all GPs in Tower Hamlets. The poster has also been uploaded onto the CCG’s intranet to help GPs to identify the high-risk features of oral cancer and to provide information on how to refer urgent cases to the Royal London Dental Hospital.
The poster was developed as part of the BDS Year 4 Population Health and Evidence-based Dentistry teaching to promote collaborative working and inter-professional communication. Jed was supervised by Dr Vanessa Muirhead from the Centre of Dental Public Health and Primary Care and Dr Anwar Tappuni from the Centre of Oral Immunobiology and Regenerative Medicine.
Rosetrees Trust funds development of a novel HPV test for Head and Neck Cancer by QMUL researchers
Rosetrees Trust has extended funding to Professor Ahmad Waseem and Dr Anand Lalli (Institute of Dentistry) for the development of a novel test to more accurately diagnose HPV-driven head and neck cancers. This stratification is vital for improving patient care, as HPV-driven tumours are known to respond better to treatment than other cancers of the head and neck.
The initial in vitro discovery, behind this new technology was funded jointly by Rosetrees Trust and the Facial Research Foundation-Saving Faces with further development supported by a QMI Proof of Concept grant. Continuing support from Rosetrees Trust in the translational phase will facilitate testing against current methods for HPV detection that are significantly more complex, expensive and time-consuming. Personalisation of treatment using this new technique will allow for shorter and simpler cancer treatment strategies improving quality of life for patients whilst also optimising usage of limited healthcare resources.
Mr Andreas Tsoutsos wins prestigious Drapers' Company Prize
Congratulations to Mr Andreas Tsoutsos (MSc Dental Technology student) who has won the prestigious Drapers’ company prize and £100 for academic excellence. Andreas received a commendation from the external examiner on his distinction thesis entitled; optimization of the crystallization and flexural strength of a novel leucite glass-ceramic. He was supervised by Dr Mike Cattell and Dr Natalia Karpukhina (Centre for Oral Bioengineering, Institute of Dentistry).
Kieran Gohel-Andrews Awarded the British Society of Paediatric Dentistry Undergraduate Poster Prize
Kieran Gohel-Andrews, a 5th year Dental Student at Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, has been awarded the first British Society of Paediatric Dentistry Undergraduate Poster Prize. He presented, 'The attending adult: Do they have parental responsibility for the paediatric patient?' at their annual conference in Manchester on 21st September 2017, an audit he led under the supervision of Dr Janet Davies (Consultant Senior Lecturer in Paediatric Dentistry) and Dr Mohsin Chaudhary (Clinical Lecturer in Paediatric Dentistry).
His audit has led to the development of a parental responsibility assessment to help navigate undergraduate dental students through this vital component of parental consent. This is now being used permanently on the paediatric clinic at the Sir Ludwig Guttmann Centre, along with a specially designed poster to inform the general public of restrictions the law places on parental consent.
He will be presenting his work at the 'Let's Talk about Research' lunch time series on the 16th January 2018, 1pm - 1:30pm following Professor Cynthia Pine, who will share her research focussing on children's oral health.
If you have any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact Kieran on firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Mike Cattell, Dr Saroash Shahid, Professor Gleb Sukhorukov and Dr Rob Whiley awarded Innovation Med Tech Project Funding (£25,000)
A cross-disciplinary team at QM have been awarded 25k to develop a novel chlorhexidine drug which can be encapsulated using layer by layer encapsulation of polyelectrolytes. This work will involve biological and translational studies to develop this technology for exciting new oral health care gel products and pharmaceuticals.
The team comprises; Dr Mike Cattell (Institute of Dentistry, IOD), Professor Gleb Sukhorukov (School of Engineering and Material Science, SEMS), Dr Samiul Hasan (IOD), Dr Dong Luo (SEMS), Dr Saroash Shahid, Dr Rob Whiley and Dr Simon Rawlinson (IOD).
QMUL Professor at the British Embassy in Paris discussing Brexit
The International Women’s Forum (IWF) UK held a panel discussion in Paris today on Shaping the new Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. The panel was chaired by the broadcaster and journalist, Sue Cameron and four panellists covered a range of sectors. Vicky Pryce, the economist set the scene with an analysis of the challenges; Louise Cossey, KPMG based in Paris, considered leading business concerns and models; Cynthia Pine CBE, Professor of Dental Public Health from Queen Mary University of London led on key factors in higher education and health impacted by Brexit; the French political journalist, Anne-Elisabeth Moutet gave a challenging perspective of the French view of the UK and likely outcomes. The meeting was held at the British Embassy in Paris and joined by officials from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office led by Oriel Petry, Director for UK Trade and Investment France.
Photograph at the British Embassy in Paris: L to R: Professor Cynthia Pine CBE, Sue Cameron, Julie Goldstein, Chair of IWF (UK) and Louise Cossey, KPMG.
Research success at the British Orthodontic Conference
The british orthodontic conference took place last week.
Out of all the P/G research entries 3 of our candidates were selected to present their research as oral presentations. only 8 are selected in total from the whole of the country.
Rozana Bhamral - supervisor - Prof. Johal
Samantha Collier - supervisor - Dr. Fleming
Jeet Parekh - supervisor - Dr. Sharma
Jeet Parekh won 3rd prize for the research prize - 'An RCT comparing the dental and skeletal affects of the the twin block appliance worn part-time v's full time'. Supervisor/ Chief Investigator - Dr. Sharma
This is the first time we have had 3 candidates selected for the P/G presentations and QMUL was well represented with 3 out of the 8 presentations in total.
The toothpaste that uses GLASS particles to remove decay - Professor Robert Hill - Daily Mail
Professor Robert Hill is featured in the Daily Mail, disucssing BioMinC.
Hebah Aldehlawi wins BSODR 2017 Oral Medicine/Oral Pathology Prize
Congratulations to Dr Hebah Aldehlawi (final year PhD student, Institute of Dentistry) who was awarded the prestigious BSODR Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology poster prize for her entry entitled "In vitro analysis of Keratin K2 function in protecting against carcinogenesis" at the British Society for Oral and Dental Research Conference 2017. Hebah's research, with her supervisors Prof Ahmad Waseem and Dr Anand Lalli, is producing some enlightening new discoveries on the role of the late differentiation marker Keratin K2 in oral epithelial disease.
EDM Conference success at Institute of Dentistry
The 2017 European Dental Materials Conference (EDM) was recently run at the Institute of Dentistry, QM with excellent feedback. The conference attracted delegates from 24 countries and as far as Korea and Japan. The EDM conference met one of its objectives by increasing women keynote speakers to 40-50 %, to encourage women to advance their careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Medicine/Dentistry. This is in line with the Institute of Dentistry’s Athena Swan strategy. The meeting was supported by sponsors including: Ivoclar-Vivadent, 3M, Cera Dynamics Ltd, Straumann, GC, Schottlander, Voco, Instron and Wiley.
To attract younger delegates the society provided a Postgraduate student training day (chaired by Prof. Fortune) on “How to write a scientific paper for publication” under the guidance of Journal Editors (Dr Garry Fleming, Prof. Will Palin, Dr Nick Silikas, Prof. Nicoleta Ilie). The students also enjoyed training in the afternoon on Presentation/Voice Skills by Joseph Quinn (influencingnow.com).
Thank you to the organising committee that helped to make this an excellent event: Dr Cattell/EDM chair, Dr Shahid, Dr Patel, Dr Parker, Dr Jawad; technical staff (Mr Adel Houmani, Mr Chad Cluff, Ms Sally McFadyen, Mr Ronn Thomas, Ms Julia Schmidt); QMUL students (Dr Xiaojing Chen, Dr Samiul Hassan, Dr Farah Al-Khayyat, Dr Amani Agha, Dr Sami Bissau, Mr Tomas Duminis, Mr Andreas Tsoutsos); and, Professor Farida Fortune and Professor Graham Davis. A large amount of excellent delegate feedback was subsequently received, indicating the great success of the 2017 EDM Conference.
“Thank for the excellent EDM meeting! It was pleasure to attend in all respects. Best regards to the organizing committee”.
“I would like to thank you for a well organized and learnful conference. It was a pleasure for me to attend”.
“Thank you once again for excellent organisation and all the hard work. It was a great honour to be a part of it”.
“Congratulations on a job very well done. It was a very pleasant and friendly atmosphere throughout, thanks to the tone you set”.
“Phenomenal conference - you did fantastically”.
Educating the Educated - A Report of an Undergraduate Medical Student with Multiple Carious Lesions and Poor Dietary Habits
Dr Saroash Shahid, Dr Mike Cattell and Prof Robert Hill awarded QMUL Proof of Concept Funding (£46,800)
Dr Saroash Shahid (Dental Physical Sciences), Dr Mike Cattell (Centre Adult Oral Health) and Prof Robert Hill have secured QMUL Proof of Concept Funding to develop a new adhesive cements for fixed restorations to enhance their mechanical and aesthetic properties. This work will be in collaboration with industry and Dr Garry Fleming (Dublin Dental School).
QMUL Educational Collaboration with Dental Wings/Straumann
We are delighted to announce an educational collaboration which has been established between the Institute of Dentistry, Dental Wings Inc., and Straumann. The School will be supported with equipment and software of well over £100,000 for a five year project. This will allow undergraduate and postgraduate teaching of the digital work flow from patient scanning through to digital design of restorations and manufacture.
Dr Shakeel Shahdad (Barts Health) and Dr Mike Cattell (Centre of Adult Oral Health) will be working with this consortium to deliver the project. Dr Shahdad will also be implementing this for delivery of patient care at The Royal London Dental Hospital to further consolidate the reputation of the Institute as a Centre of Excellence in the UK.
This initiative will be launched at the European Dental Materials Conference to be held at Barts and the London, School of Dentistry 30th August –1st September 2017.
Institute of Dentistry researchers awarded Proof of Concept funding (£50000) to develop new technology to better identify head and neck cancers caused by HPV.
Professor Ahmad Waseem and his team are developing a novel way to identify the increasing number of HPV-driven head and neck cancers. This is vital for improving cancer patient care as HPV related tumours have a much better outcome than those caused by other factors such as alcohol, tobacco or areca nut consumption. Personalisation of treatment using this new technology may also allow for less invasive ‘de-intensified’ treatment strategies with fewer side-effects.
The initial discovery was part of Katarzyna Niemiec’s PhD study (Institute of Dentistry) funded jointly by the Rosetrees Trust and Facial Research Foundation-Saving Faces but this Proof of Concept grant is essential for Professor Waseem and his clinical colleagues Professor Iain Hutchison (Consultant in OMFS, Barts Health and Chief Executive of the Facial Surgery Research Foundation – Saving Faces) and Dr. Anand Lalli (NIHR funded ACL, Institute of Dentistry) to test the new technology against current methods for HPV detection which are significantly more complex, expensive and time-consuming.
Dr Elena Calciolari, a research fellow since 2015, has been awarded the L’Oréal UNESCO for women in science award 2017 for Italy
Professor Nikolaos Donos and the Centre for Oral Clinical Research are happy to announce that Dr Elena Calciolari, a research fellow since 2015, has been awarded the L’Oréal UNESCO for women in science award 2017 for Italy. The award recognises promising young researchers from different fields (from Life Science, to Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering) and this year more than 450 candidacies were received. Dr Calciolari’s project aims to test the use of indices calculated on dental panoramic radiographs to intercept patients affected by osteoporosis. Considering the high mortality and morbidity related to osteoporotic fractures and the economic burden related to its treatment and long-term care, early diagnosis and prevention strategies are considered a priority. Dr Calciolari is the first dentist to win this award for Italy. The idea of this project arose during Dr Calciolari’s PhD when, under the supervision of Professor Nikolaos Donos and Dr Nikos Mardas, she completed a systematic review and meta-analysis that showed the potential of dental x-rays in the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
This award follows previous recognitions of Dr Calciolari’s research activity, such as the Goldman award for clinical research from the Italian Society of Periodontology and the John Zamet prize.
LKinks to the videos (in Italian)
Centre's for Oral Clinical Research Dr Vanessa Sousa Moreno wins the IADR Colgate Research in Prevention Award
Dr Vanessa Sousa Moreno has received the IADR Colgate Research in Prevention Award to attend the IADR General Session in Seoul, Republic of Korea. This award was established to support young investigators developing research in the area of oral disease prevention and to facilitate the presentation of their work to the international oral health research community.
Dr Sousa presented “Microbial Ecology of Peri-Implantitis: Modelling Microcosm Biofilms” during the Implantology Research – Oral Session. Professor Dave Spratt, Dr Nikos Mardas and Professor Nikolaos Donos supervised the research project. This prestigious international award is granted only to one scientist from the following IADR regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Africa/Middle East and Asia/Pacific region.
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is 2nd in the UK for Dentistry as published in the Guardian University Guide for 2018
The latest results in the Guardian league tables, which focus on the quality of teaching, student satisfaction and employability, mean that QMUL is the top university in England, Wales and Northern Ireland for this subject.
QMUL rises one place in the rankings for Dentistry compared to last year, achieving an overall score of 94.6 out of 100, with 95 per cent of students saying they were satisfied with the course and their teaching. This follows our excellent results in the recently published Complete University Guide - which listed QMUL as top in Dentistry.
The Guardian University Guide ranks universities according to: spending per student; the student/staff ratio; graduate career prospects; what grades applicants need to get a place; a value-added score that compares students’ entry qualifications with their final degree results; and how satisfied final-year students are with their courses, based on results from the annual National Student Survey (NSS).
1st ITI Education Week London - Modern Treatment Solutions for Advanced Clinical Problems July 10-14, 2017
1st ITI Education Week London
Modern Treatment Solutions for Advanced Clinical Problems
July 10-14, 2017
Despite the high predictability of treatments with titanium dental implants, long term success and aesthetic outcomes are a continuing challenge in cases of implants placed in areas with significant bone and soft tissue loss. This course will provide evidence-based and up to date treatment solutions for different clinical scenarios where implant placement and restoration is not straightforward. Utilising clinically orientated lectures, workshops, live surgeries, videos and case based discussions, the participant will be provided with the necessary knowledge as well as technical advice/tips starting from initial treatment planning to the delivery of final implant restorations in advanced cases where the lack of hard and soft tissue creates a challenging clinical situation.
To download the flyer, please click here: ITI Education Week [PDF 1,204KB]
Link for registration: http://www.cvent.com/d/wvq4y1
Link to the ITI EW London Overview: http://www.iti.org/EW2017_London
QMUL tops UK league table for Dentistry
Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is the UK’s highest ranking university for Dentistry, as published today in The Complete University Guide league table for 2018.
It is also the only university in the country to achieve the maximum overall score of 100 in the subject, with the Guide commenting that “the university has excellent scores for all of the measures used.” It also highlights our friendly and supportive environment and exceptional pastoral care.
The Complete University Guide is compiled from Higher Education Statistics Agency data on university entry standards, student-staff ratios, spending on academic services, spending on facilities, good honours degrees, graduate prospects, completion and overseas student enrolments.
PhD student receives the prestigious IADR Cariology Research Group Science Award
Dr Wei-Te (Ken) Huang (centre left) was the recipient of the prestigious IADR CARIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP SCIENCE AWARD 2017 for his paper titled “Cariostatic Effects of Commercial Silver Diammine Fluoride Components on Enamel” presented at the 95th Annual Meeting of IADR in San Francisco, USA. The abstract was co-authored by Mr. Tomas Duminis, Dr. Saroash Shahid and Prof. Paul Anderson. The IADR CARIOLOGY RESEARCH GROUP SCIENCE AWARD is intended to promote the quality of science at the annual IADR meeting.
Dr Huang is supervised by Dr Saroash Shahid and Prof Paul Anderson. In the broader context, Dr Huang’s PhD project explores kinetic and structural aspects of demineralization and remineralization of tooth . Dr Huang joined the Institute of Dentistry in 2014, and successfully completed MSc in Oral Biology with a distinction for which he was awarded the Principal’s Prize in 2015.
Oral Health Promotion Research Prize at the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD)
Congratulations to Aditi Mondkar (specialty trainee at Public Health England), Vanessa Muirhead (Clinical Senior Lecturer/Honorary Consultant in Dental Public Health, Paddy Evans (Senior Dental Officer) and Desmond Wright (Honorary Senior Lecturer) for winning the Oral Health Promotion Research Prize at the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) Spring Scientific Meeting in April.
The prize awards collaboration between academics and oral health promoters disseminating good oral health promotion practice and evaluation. The team presented their research poster titled “Developing a Social Care Oral Health Resource – The “10 Key Questions for Foster Carers” Booklet.
The team’s research is also featured as a case study in the Local Government Association policy document “Healthy futures Supporting and promoting the health needs of looked after children” published in December 2016 (http://www.local.gov.uk/sites/default/files/documents/healthy-futures-supportin-9cf.pdf).
24 January 2017
24 January 2017
12 January 2017
29 November 2016
There are currently no events scheduled.